(I know there is also BeiDou/Compass, and Glonass plus the other SBAS augmentation systems, however, I am focusing on planned improvements to GPS and Galileo here).
Galileo to become fully production
This has been scheduled for 2020 for years. I am not sure if they will make 2020 or whether it will be pushed back to 2021.
I know that they have been in the news this month due to an outage.
21 satellites are working at the moment. Four were launched last year and became operational this year. More are scheduled to be launched some time in 2020. It could take several months, after launch, for them to be made operational.
They all seem to transmit dual band signals.
GPS to transmit L2C signal.
This is about 300Mhz from (lower than) the L1C/A signal so should provide a way to negate the effects of the ionosphere. 19 satellites are broadcasting the signal today. The two new Block 3 satellites should start broadcasting soon(within a year). They expect to have it fully operational in 2021.
GPS to transmit L5C signal. This one is supposed to be a protected service for “Safety of Life”
Again, ~400Mhz lower than the L1C/A signal so should provide another signal to negate the effects of the ionosphere. This is only available on Block 3 satellites. Two have been launched (I watch the launch of SV02 last Thursday, on NASA TV). Due date is 2024, however, that is only for just enough satellites for the system to work. It will take a few more years for every satellite to transmit L5C.
GPS to transmit L1C signal (not L1 C/A).
The GPS satellites are being replaced. The new GPS III satellites will transmit a new L1C signal. Whilst this is a nice improvement, we have to wait until the end of the 2020s for this to be fully rolled out. At the moment there is one GPS satellite testing this signal.
SA or Selective Availability was turned off almost 20 years ago. It was a little pointless when WAAS and other SBAS systems were enabled. Also, the new Block 3 satellites don’t even have the facility to do it. The U.S. military has other options for to use to degrade GNSS services.
Glonass and BeiDou are also due for upgrades. They both have dual band transmitters, however, only about half of the satellites seem to be transmitting on both bands.
In my attic, I can “see” 20 to 30 satellites with a nice dual band, four constellation receiver(not cheap, at $US200 plus a $US50-100 antenna, however, the price will come down over time). I hope to move the antenna outside in the next week or so. I’ll post a Sky View when I move it.
Having four, or more, constellations available for navigation greatly improves availability and reliability. All should provide dual band signals by the end of the next decade.