All times are UTC - 6 hours [ DST ]




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 594 posts ]  Go to page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... 24  Next
Author Message
 Post subject: Announcing PiAware 3! (Latest version: 3.5.0)
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 1:36 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
ericcarlson - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Sun Jan 01, 2006 5:00 pm
Posts: 150
Announcing PiAware 3!

Latest version is 3.5.0 (released April 3, 2017). Scroll down for the latest release notes.

Instructions and Download Links

FlightAware is excited to announce the launch of PiAware 3! PiAware 3 extends the industry leading capabilities of the incredibly popular PiAware software for Raspberry Pi devices. Highlights include mapping and aircraft list enhancements and easy WiFi setup. PiAware 3 is currently only available as a reinstall of the SD card image at this time. FlightAware recommends that all current users of PiAware upgrade to the PiAware 3 to obtain the new features.

Installing PiAware 3

The SD card image installation is the recommended procedure for users setting up a new Raspberry Pi for the first time or for users that want to update an existing PiAware device. Note that this will result in any existing data on the SD card being erased. To install, you must download the FlightAware PiAware 3 Raspberry Pi image which can be found here: https://flightaware.com/adsb/piaware/build
For discussion of the new features please use our discussion forum or e-mail adsbsupport [at] flightaware.com with questions.

Quickly, how do I enabled WiFi?

Note: These configuration instructions only apply if you installed from the PiAware 3.0 SD card image. If you need to enable WiFi then continue with the following steps AFTER completing the steps in Section 2 of the Build a PiAware instructions:
  • Reinsert the SD card in your computer. It should be automatically recognized as an available disk drive.
  • Open the SD card disk drive.
  • Open "piaware-config.txt" in a text editor (usually you can just double-click the file to open).
  • Scroll down to the “wifi” settings and change the following settings to the values specified here:
    • wireless-network yes
    • wireless-ssid MyWifiNetwork (replace "MyWifiNetwork" with the name of your local WiFi network)
    • wireless-password s3cr3t (replace "s3cr3t" with your local WiFi network password)
  • Save and close the file.
  • Eject and remove the SD card.

Release Notes
  • 3.0
    • Integrated WiFi support -- Easy wifi configuration without requiring attached monitor/keyboard/mouse or wired network connectivity -- please refer to the instructions on our web site: https://flightaware.com/adsb/piaware/bu ... ional#wifi
    • New OpenLayer Maps for local flight mapping
      • Avoids requirement for users to obtain Google Maps API keys
      • Adds local map support for users in China
      • Range rings and aircraft distance from receiver site
      • Country flags
      • Aircraft type and registration, when known
    • Updates dump1090 to align with the latest dump1090-mutability release which includes a substantially better Mode S decoder than PiAware 2
    • Adds support for receiver devices other than RTL-SDR dongles such as Beast, Radarcape and other external receivers (for advanced users)
    • Adds a new configuration utility to ease setup and customization (for advanced users)
    • Improves the update capabilities so you can easily receive future enhancements
    • Adds a new PiAware status web page for easy status review at-a-glance and quick access to the local map view (for advanced users, this is on HTTP port 80 and port 8080 redirects here) -- the easiest way to access this local map view continues to be via the “View Live Data” link on the My ADS-B stats page at https://flightaware.com
      Image
  • 3.0.4
    • Auto upgrade from 3.0.3 supported.
    • Added support for additional wireless devices' firmware.
    • Added support for hidden wireless network SSIDs.
  • 3.1.0
    • piaware-config.txt now supports configuration values with special characters by enclosing them in quotes. This is primarily to support WiFi configuration. See comments in piaware-config.txt for details.
    • Improvements to data decoding to prefer Extended Squitter data over non-ES Mode S data when both are available; this improves accuracy of reported data.
    • Improved reliability of air/ground detection.
    • Various minor bug fixes and tweaks.
    • And the Big News: major improvements to the dump1090 web interface!
      • Add NEXRAD weather layer (USA only)
      • Aircraft information moves to drag-able pop-up
      • Data table (sidebar) is resize-able and expandable/collapsible
      • New and improved hyperlinks to flightaware.com aircraft data
      • Configurable units of measure display (Imperial, metric, aeronautical)
      • Filter aircraft by altitude
      • Option to show all aircraft tracks
      • Improved aircraft icons on map
      • Improved aircraft type/registration database to include more publicly available data
      • Computed aircraft registration numbers (from ICAO address) for countries with predictable mappings (e.g., USA)
      • Various look and feel improvements for usability
  • 3.3.0
    • New config option: mlat-results-anon (default "yes"). Set to "no" to disable sending MLAT results for blocked aircraft.
    • New command-line options: -configfile, -cachedir. Can be used to run multiple copies of piaware on a single host by pointing each piaware at a different config file and cachedir.
    • Updated Mode A/C support
      • New config option: allow-modeac (default "yes"). If enabled, dump1090-fa will decode Mode A/C if a client requests it via the Beast command protocol. Decoding Mode A/C requires additional CPU; this option may need to be disabled on low power devices. Upgrades on a Pi Zero or Pi 1 will set this to "no" during the upgrade. There is no display of Mode A/C data on the dump1090-fa web interface.
      • Major improvements to the Mode A/C decoder.
      • Greatly reduced dump1090 CPU load when processing Mode A/C data in a busy environment.
    • Updated FlightAware's aircraft static data export used by dump1090.
    • Allow skipping the web map history load on slow connections by appending "#nohistory" to the map URL.
    • For users running a previous 3.x SD card install or a new 3.3 SD card install:
      • Support for using external USB wifi on the Pi 3, for cases where the built-in wifi is insufficient. Configure "rfkill yes" in addition to normal wireless settings. This will disable the internal wifi and use the external USB wifi instead.
      • Added a splashscreen during boot.
      • PiAware will remind you to change your password when you log in if ssh is enabled and your password is still the default password.
    • For users installing a NEW install from the 3.3 SD card image:
      • Updated the image to be based on the latest upstream Raspbian.
      • The sdcard image no longer includes a desktop environment; upstream changes in Raspbian made it impractical to maintain. If you need a desktop environment, you can either do a package install of piaware on top of standard Raspbian, or run:
        Code:
          $ sudo apt-get update
          $ sudo apt-get install raspberrypi-ui-mods
          $ sudo reboot

        after installing the image.
      • Replacing the desktop login prompt, after booting a simple text-mode status screen will be displayed. It shows (amongst other things) the current status of PiAware and the assigned IP addresses of the Pi. For a login prompt, press Alt+F2.
      • The sdcard image no longer enables ssh by default for security reasons. This behaves the same way as upstream Raspbian; see https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/a-secu ... ian-pixel/ for more information. Upgrades of existing installs, without writing a new sdcard image, _are not affected_: if you had ssh enabled before, it'll still be enabled after the upgrade. You can enable ssh by:
        • Connecting a monitor and keyboard, logging in, running "sudo raspi-config", and selecting "Interfacing options" then "Enable or disable ssh server"; or
        • Creating a file named "ssh" (it doesn't matter what it contains) in the first partition of the sdcard. This can be done on a separate system, e.g. on a PC immediately after writing the sdcard image. ssh will be enabled on the next boot.
        See also https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentati ... ccess/ssh/
    • Various other bug fixes and tweaks.
  • 3.5.0
    • SD card image updated new kernel/bootloader packages (this adds support for the Pi Zero W)
    • SD card image and package-based install updated to add PiAware Skyview user interface (dump1090 map view)
      Image
      • Applied FlightAware branding and color scheme
      • Improved row colors in data table for usability
      • Add altitude color key to the map user interface
      • Added color coded aircraft trails by aircraft altitude at each position
      • Improved icons on the map view
      • Added labels to distance range rings
      • Updated aircraft icons to add more icons and make them consistent with flightaware.com
      • Added new Settings pane (via gear icon) to consolidate configuration options and added filters for Blocked MLAT flights and ground vehicles.
      • Added basic aircraft information pane the displays on hover over an aircraft icon.
      • Updated and expanded the aircraft details pane for usability.
      • Added current date/time in the header.
      • Minor formatting changes for clarity and usability


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 4:35 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Member
jvcdcarlos - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Apr 23, 2015 4:57 am
Posts: 195
Yes but.. that is good news, but for who have more website feeds installed in sdcard and of course some another things that is not good start from beginning and erase all sdcard... im just still wait for another option to update, that's really dont make sense, do you really believe that someone buy a rpi just for flightaware?
cheers 🍻

Sent from my SM-N910F using Tapatalk


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 4:55 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
There will be a package-based upgrade path available soon. (Or you can build it yourself right now from github)

However if you want the configuration features of the new sdcard image (wifi, Beast integration etc), you'll need to start from the new image as those changes are invasive and it's not practical or safe to try to apply them to an existing install .


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 7:46 pm 
Offline
n112 - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2015 5:03 pm
Posts: 9
Thank you for providing the updated piaware 3.0.3 image.

After the unzip of piaware-sd-card-3.0.3.img.zip, there are two new files:
piaware-sd-card-3.0.3.img and piaware-config.txt.
The file piaware-config.txt contains lots of good comments. One comment that I would like and did not find is where this file should reside in the file system and if specific name, permissions or case are important.

In my current system, I could not find a text file named piaware-config.txt. There is a binary file /usr/bin/piaware-config.
Is this the source to make this binary file? If it needs to be compiled, how is this done?

Thank you.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:06 pm 
Offline
hpaine - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Mon Feb 23, 2015 9:42 pm
Posts: 24
installed piaware 3 on my new pi3
greeted with a login and password at the gui screen

tried the old stuff dont work

want to setup the pi3 wireless without the linux gobblede goop


thanks


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:09 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Member
k6rtm - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Nov 18, 2014 10:18 pm
Posts: 426
Location: Silicon Valley
Many thanks!

My secondary unit is up and running in a few minutes. Now I need to find where the new options files are hiding --

I want to turn on counts in the title, as well as change the page name.

Hints?

I also have to rebuild around the new installation, automagic backups and such. (I really should go with puppet.)

So far, so good!

bob k6rtm


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:13 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
n112 wrote:
Thank you for providing the updated piaware 3.0.3 image.

After the unzip of piaware-sd-card-3.0.3.img.zip, there are two new files:
piaware-sd-card-3.0.3.img and piaware-config.txt.
The file piaware-config.txt contains lots of good comments. One comment that I would like and did not find is where this file should reside in the file system and if specific name, permissions or case are important.

In my current system, I could not find a text file named piaware-config.txt. There is a binary file /usr/bin/piaware-config.
Is this the source to make this binary file? If it needs to be compiled, how is this done?

Thank you.

See /boot/piaware-config.txt. This is on the first (FAT) partition so you can edit it easily on other systems e.g. Windows, it should show up at the root of the sdcard.
The copy in the zipfile is just there as an example. I'm seeing if I can get that improved, it's confusing to have it there.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:14 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
hpaine wrote:
installed piaware 3 on my new pi3
greeted with a login and password at the gui screen

tried the old stuff dont work

want to setup the pi3 wireless without the linux gobblede goop


thanks

Put the sdcard in your PC, edit the file piaware-config.txt, it has instructions, modify the file to reflect your wifi setup, remove the sdcard, put it back in your Pi.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:15 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
k6rtm wrote:
Many thanks!

My secondary unit is up and running in a few minutes. Now I need to find where the new options files are hiding --

I want to turn on counts in the title, as well as change the page name.

Hints?

I also have to rebuild around the new installation, automagic backups and such. (I really should go with puppet.)

So far, so good!

bob k6rtm

See /usr/share/dump1090-fa

If you're puppet-izing the config etc anyway, you may just want to go with a vanilla raspbian + piaware package; most of the magic in the sdcard image revolves around trying to make the configuration management simpler for someone who isn't familar with linux systems and it is likely to stomp on your changes..


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2016 8:34 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Member
k6rtm - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Nov 18, 2014 10:18 pm
Posts: 426
Location: Silicon Valley
Thanks, Oliver and the FlightAware gang for all the hard work, and a pretty painless install.

That's the bouquets, now for the brickbats... I understand shipping minimal images, but...

So far I've installed:

nfs-common (talk to servers)
avahi-daemon (so I don't have to track down addresses)

I'll update the list tomorrow probably, when I get to do this again with my primary FlightAware box...

But so far so good!

And I love the comments in /usr/share/dump1090-fa/html/index.html !!!

...turning on clocks in config.js is an issue?

bob k6rtm


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 4:15 am 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
Dump1090-fa strips out the clocks for simplicity (they take up a ton of space and who doesn't already have a clock display?)

The image is not even as minimal I would like, I'd like to strip out X but apparently command lines are scary.. The sdcard image is really aimed at people with no Linux experience that want something that you can just plug in and have working immediately. If you know what you're doing than I would suggest starting from a base image of your choice since the design decisions are quite different for a black box system vs something that will be tinkered with.

At some point I want to release the image builder scripts so you can customise it but that is probably some time away. (all the components are on github already, just not the script that puts the image together)


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 8:01 am 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
ericcarlson - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Sun Jan 01, 2006 5:00 pm
Posts: 150
For those of you wanting to do custom configuration, especially wifi setup, in PiAware 3, please refer to the instructions on our web site: https://flightaware.com/adsb/piaware/bu ... ional#wifi

We understand that some of you will also want to do customized installs or upgrades of existing environments. We will provide more guidance on this in the future. Our intent for now is to present the SD card installation option as it represents the simplest approach to setup PiAware, especially for new users or users with a "vanilla" configuration.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:17 am 
Offline
carlmortimer - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 7:25 pm
Posts: 40
Is this only for RPi3s? I tried installing on RPi2 and no wifi with my dongle. Dongle is not even recognized.

Don't know what to install where to make it work as there are no instructions on the build page.

Tried configuring "piaware-config.txt" for wifi only and no difference :?

And after trying to use the Windows like GUI there is no browser (an error pops up) and trying to change network setting using the icon at the top right is impossible, clicking on "settings" does nothing. Pity if I had wanted to actually use any of these....

So much for "the simplest approach to setup PiAware, especially for new users or users with a "vanilla" configuration."


Last edited by carlmortimer on Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:38 am, edited 1 time in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:36 am 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
Wifi should work with any dongle that works out-of-the-box with Raspbian. If yours needs a custom driver then it may not work.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:41 am 
Offline
carlmortimer - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 7:25 pm
Posts: 40
Worked out of the box when I installed 2.1-3 a year ago.


I'll just check the instructions that I followed to set that up..... Oh wait, thats right, I can't refer back to them now can I..



And I just tried a second wifi dongle with the same result.

I think I do catch a glimpse of it being recognized in the loading text though


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:54 am 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
It works for me; can you explain exactly what you're doing and what you see?


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 10:16 am 
Offline
carlmortimer - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 7:25 pm
Posts: 40
Followed instructions, ie fresh download and fresh transfer to fresh MicroSD card via Win32DiskImager.

Changed "piaware-config.txt" on MicroSD to wired off, wireless on, copied SSID from routers setting page and pasted into file, copied wifi passkey from same page and pasted into file. Saved "piaware-config.txt"

Put MicroSD into Rpi2

Turned on power supply.

Logged on with "pi" and "flightaware"

Wifi dongles (both) result in no wifi when clicking on network symbol in top right. Neither has LED on them come on.
Both dongles work immediately if I switch back to 2.1-5

Would love to know how to pause, or slow down, that loading screen....


Last edited by carlmortimer on Tue Aug 09, 2016 10:19 am, edited 1 time in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 10:19 am 
Offline
FlightAware Member
GDoggRaspberry - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Sat May 09, 2015 1:12 pm
Posts: 69
For advanced users that are already running the latest dump1090-mutability with a FA ProStick or RTL-SDR, are there any upcoming FlightAware compatibility concerns associated with *not* upgrading to version 3? I don't personally see a need for several of the features, but I would like to have confidence that version 2 will continue to be acceptable. Thanks.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 10:29 am 
Offline
carlmortimer - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 7:25 pm
Posts: 40
Interestingly 3.0.3 loads straight to GUI log in.
2.1-5 doesn't, only the command line log in ... and now the Build a Piaware instruction page doesn't have the command necessary to load it listed anymore. Where is the "previous versions" instructions archive?

and the Piaware 3 advanced configuration page (https://flightaware.com/adsb/piaware/ad ... figuration) doesn't specify where to change some of the listed setting!?
No mention of multilateration in the "piaware-config.txt" file.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 12:04 pm 
Offline
sgsmith - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Sep 28, 2006 4:00 pm
Posts: 8
I'll echo Carlmortimer. Had the previous version of PiAware running just fine. Changed over to the ADSBreceiver software, and it was working just fine for a long time. While working a network router issue unrelated to the Pi, I had the pi on a workbench with monitor and keyboard attached. That's when I found out about the new version of PiAware. Installed PiAware 3 on a second SD card. Never could get WiFi to connect. Back to ADSBreceiver.

Pi 2 B, wifi dongle on a USB extender.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 12:59 pm 
Offline
carlmortimer - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 7:25 pm
Posts: 40
It appears both my dongles contain RT2571W chipsets. Do I need to follow the instructions here: https://wiki.debian.org/WiFi/rt73 ?

I don't remember having to do that for my original install of 2.1-3 even though I am using the same dongle


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 1:07 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Member
theresjam - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Sat Feb 07, 2015 5:48 am
Posts: 98
up and running, i had a bit user (me) error with the config file redid the uSD card and paid more attention. All is good connected to my radarcape and mlat is now working for me.

good work.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 1:36 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
GDoggRaspberry wrote:
For advanced users that are already running the latest dump1090-mutability with a FA ProStick or RTL-SDR, are there any upcoming FlightAware compatibility concerns associated with *not* upgrading to version 3? I don't personally see a need for several of the features, but I would like to have confidence that version 2 will continue to be acceptable. Thanks.

There is a piaware 3 package (binary package soon, you can build it yourself from github if you're impatient) that has just the feeder functionality; this is what you should be upgrading Piaware 2 to if you don't want the full sdcard thing.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 1:38 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
carlmortimer wrote:
Interestingly 3.0.3 loads straight to GUI log in.
2.1-5 doesn't, only the command line log in ... and now the Build a Piaware instruction page doesn't have the command necessary to load it listed anymore. Where is the "previous versions" instructions archive?

You could try archive.org

Quote:
and the Piaware 3 advanced configuration page (https://flightaware.com/adsb/piaware/ad ... figuration) doesn't specify where to change some of the listed setting!?
No mention of multilateration in the "piaware-config.txt" file.

All configuration settings go in piaware-config.txt.
The piaware-config.txt shipped with the image is just a starting point and is not exhaustive.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Announcing PiAware 3!
PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 1:40 pm 
Offline
FlightAware Staff
obj - FlightAware user avatar

Joined: Tue Sep 30, 2014 7:14 pm
Posts: 3676
carlmortimer wrote:
It appears both my dongles contain RT2571W chipsets. Do I need to follow the instructions here: https://wiki.debian.org/WiFi/rt73 ?

I don't remember having to do that for my original install of 2.1-3 even though I am using the same dongle

Yes, that's likely to be the problem; the piaware 3 image is fairly minimal and builds up from a base set of packages rather than stripping down a full install, so some things like firmware might have got missed.
If you install the non-free firmware as described it'll probably start working. I'll look at including that firmware in the next version of the image.


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 594 posts ]  Go to page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... 24  Next

All times are UTC - 6 hours [ DST ]


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: abcd567, Akubra, creatuity, EGBWJon, nameredacted, SoNic67 and 1 guest


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to: